## Closed Conduit Hydraulics

**Water Towers are an example of a closed system (Photo: ref.)**

This section is mainly used to solve fluids that travel through pipes, not Open Channel Hydraulics (e.g. Storm Drains, etc.) shown here.

The most important aspect of fluid flow through pipes is the evaluation of friction head loss (often referred to as h_{f} instead of h_{L}) which is the conversion of energy per unit weight into nonrecoverable form energy. There are three commonly used relationships for determining h_{f} due to the flow of fluid through pipes: the Darcy-Weisbach equation, the Hazen-Williams equation, and the Manning equation. The Hazen-Williams and Manning equations are also used in determining velocity and flow given pipe characteristics and the hydraulic gradient. A list of topics required to understand fluid flow through pipes have been detailed below.

#### Closed Conduit Topics

- Continuity Equation
- Energy Equation
- Minor Losses
- Pumps
- Hydraulic Radius
- Reynolds Number (Laminar vs Transitional vs Turbulent Flow)